Main Article Content
This study analyzed the lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in the water and cultured oysters (Crassostrea iredalei) of CaÃ±acao Bay, Philippines and assessed the health risks associated with these heavy metal contaminations. Oyster and water samples from three sampling stations were collected from October 2016 to January 2017 for heavy metal analysis using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Results showed low Pb and Cd concentrations in water and C. iredalei, which were within the maximum limits set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI). Pb concentrations in oysters ranged from < 0.1 to 0.4 Â± 0.1 mg/kg while Cd ranged from 0.027 Â± 0.006 to 0.083 Â± 0.006 mg/kg. Pb and Cd bioaccumulated in oyster tissues, but only Pb exhibited seasonal variation in concentration. The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) and Total Target Hazard Quotient (TTHQ) were used to estimate noncarcinogenic health risks for Pb and Cd through oyster consumption. All THQs were below 1.0 indicating that there was no appreciable risk to the general population for developing noncarcinogenic effects caused by Pb and Cd in cultured oysters. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in aquaculture areas and seafood is warranted to ensure food safety among consuming public.
Andalecio, M. N., Duncan, P. F., Peralta, E. M., Napata, R. P., & Laureta, L. V. (2014). Consumersâ€™ behavior towards cultured oyster and mussel in Western Visayas, Philippines. Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation, 7(2), 116â€“136.
Apeti, D. A., Robinson, L., & Johnson, E. (2005). Relationships between heavy metal concentrations in the Amercan oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and metal levels in the water column and sediment in Apalachicola Bay, Florida. Am J Environ Sci, 1(3), 179â€“186. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajessp.2005.179.186
ASEAN. (2002). ASEAN Marine Water Quality Criteria.
Atkinson, C. A., Jolley, D. F., & Simpson, S. L. (2004). Effect of overlying water pH, dissolved oxygen, salinity and sediment disturbances on metal release and sequestration from metal contaminated marine sediments. Chemosphere, 69(9), 1428â€“1437.
Bakri, B., Sumakin, A., Widiasari, Y., & Ihsan, M. (2020). Distribution pattern of water salinity analysis in Jeneberang river estuary using ArcGIS. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 419. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/419/1/012116
Bernard, A. (2008). Cadmium & its adverse effects on human health. India J Med Res, 128(4), 557â€“564.
Bilos, C., Colombo, J. C., & Presa, M. J. R. (1998). Trace metals in suspended particles, sediments and Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea) of the RÃo de la Plata Estuary, Argentina. Environ Pollution, 99, 1â€“11.
Budin, K., Praveena, S. M., Sakari, M., Hassan, S., & Ibrahim, E. I. (2013). Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals via Consumption of Bivalves Species in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. In A. Aris, T. Tengku Ismail, R. Harun, A. Abdullah, & M. Ishak (Eds.), International Conference on Environmental Forensics (pp. 585â€“590). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-4560-70-2_104
Burkhardt III, W., & Calci, K. R. (2000). Selective accumulation may account for shellfish associated viral illness. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66(4), 1375â€“1378.
Casas, S., Gonzalez, J. L., Andral, B., & Cossa, D. (2008). Relation between metal concentration in water and metal content in marine mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis): impact of physiology. Environ Toxicol Chem, 27(7), 1543â€“1552. https://doi.org/10.1897/07-418.1
Cayabyab, A. L., & Reyes, E. M. (2008). ICM at work: harnessing local initiative to achieve food security. In R. P. M. Lotilla (Ed.), Tropical Coasts â€“ Coastal Resources: Productivity and Impacts on Food Security (pp. 17â€“23).
Chang, G. O. J. L., Inn, L. V, Hwai, A. T. S., & Yasin, Z. (2016). The Effects of Salinity on the Filtration Rates of Juvenile Tropical Oyster Crassostrea iredalei. Tropical Life Sciences Rese, 27(3), 45â€“51. https://doi.org/10.21315/tlsr2016.27.3.7
Cuvin-Aralar, M. L. A. (1990). Mercury levels in the sediment, water and selected finfishes of Laguna Lake, The Philippines. Aquaculture, 84(3â€“4), 277â€“288. https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(90)90093-3
Da Silva, A. L. O., Barrocas, P. R. G., Jacob, S. D. C., & Moreira, J. C. (2005). Dietary intake and health effects of selected toxic elements. Braz. J. Plant Physiol, 17(1), 79â€“93.
Dan, S. F., Umoh, U. U., & Osabor, V. N. (2014). Seasonal variation of enrichment and contamination of heavy metals in the surface of Qua Iboe River Estuary and adjoining creeks, South-South Nigeria. J Oceanog Mar Sci, 5(6), 45â€“54.
DENR Administrative Order 34: Revised Water Usage and Classification/Water Quality Criteria Amending, Pub. L. No. 34 (1990). https://emb.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/DAO-1990-34.pdf
DENR Administrative Order No. 38 Chemical Control Order for Mercury and Mercury Compounds, (1997). https://emb.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/DAO-1997-38.pdf
Denton, G. R. W., & Burton-Jones, C. (1981). Influence of temperature and salinity on the uptake, distribution and depuration of mercury, cadmium, lead by black lip oyster. Mar Biol, 64(317â€“326).
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). (2016). Water Quality Guidelines and General Effluent Standards.
Dunphy, B. J., Hall, J. A., Jeffs, A. G., & Wells, R. M. G. (2006). Selective particle feeding by the Chilean oyster, Ostrea chilensis; implications for nursery culture and broodstock conditioning. Aquaculture, 261(2), 594â€“602.
Engel, D. W. (1999). Accumulation and cytosolic partitioning of metals in the American oyster Crassostrea virginica. Mar. Environ Res, 47, 89â€“102.
Ezemonye, L. I., Adebayo, P. O., Enuneku, A. A., Tongo, I., & Ogbomida, E. (2019). Potential health risk consequences of heavy metal concentrations in surface water, shrimp (Macrobrachium macrobrachion) and fish (Brycinus longipinnis) from Benin River, Nigeria. Toxicology Reports, 6, 1â€“9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2018.11.010
Fatoki, O. S., Okoro, H. K., Adekola, F. A., Ximba, B. J., & Snyman, R. G. (2012). Bioaccumulation of metals in black mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in Cape Town Harbour, South Africa. Environmentalist, 32(1), 48â€“57. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10669-011-9370-5
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). (1988). Status of oyster culture in selected Asian countries.
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). (2003). Legal Notice No 66/ 2003 Heavy Metals Regulations. 34â€“41.
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). (2016). Fishery and aquaculture country profiles: The Republic of the Philippines.
Food and Nutrition Research Institute â€“ Department of Science and Technology (FNRI-DOST). (2013). 8th National Nutrition Survey.
Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI). (2009). Mercury, lead, cadmium, tin and arsenic in food. Toxicology Fact Sheet Series, 1, 1â€“13.
Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ). (2013). Standard 1.4.1 contaminants and natural toxicants.
Garrett, R. G. (2000). Natural Sources of Metals to the Environment. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 6(6), 945â€“963. https://doi.org/10.1080/10807030091124383.
Gobas, F. A. P. C. (2001). Assessing bioaccumulation factors of persistent organic pollutants in aquatic food-chains. In S. Harrad (Ed.), Persistent organic pollutants: environmental behaviour and pathways of human exposure (pp. 145â€“165). Springer US.
GÃ³ngora-GÃ³mez, A. M., GarcÃa-Ulloa, M., MuÃ±oz-Sevilla, N. P., DomÃnguez-Orozco, A. L., Villanueva-Fonseca, B. P., HernÃ¡ndez-SepÃºlveda, J. A., & Ortega-Iza-guirre, R. (2017). Heavy-metal contents in oysters (Crassostrea gigas) cultivated on the southeastern coast of the Gulf of California, Mexico. HidrobiolÃ³gica, 27(2), 219â€“227. https://doi.org/10.24275/uam/izt/dcbs/hidro/2017v27n2/Garcia
Gupta, S. K., & Singh, J. (2011). Evaluation of mollusc as sensitive indicatior of heavy metal pollution in aquatic system: a review. IIOAB Journal, 2(1), 49â€“57.
Hamidian, A. H., Alavian, P., Ashrafi, S., Eagderi, S., & Khazaee, M. (2013). Investigation of body size effect on bioaccumulation pattern of Cd, Pb and Ni in the soft tissue of rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata from Laft Port. Journal of the Persian Gulf (Marine Science), 4(14), 39â€“45.
Han, B. C., Jeng, W. L., Hung, T. C., Ling, Y. C., Shieh, M. J., & Chien, L. C. (2000). Estimation of metal and organochlorine pesticide exposures and potential health threat by consumption of oysters in Taiwan. Environ Pollut, 109, 147-156.
Houba, C., Remacle, J., Dubois, D., & Thorez, J. (1983). Factors affecting the concentrations of cadmium, zinc, copper and lead in the sediments of the Vesdre River. Water Res, 17, 1281â€“1286.
Hutton, M. (1987). Human Health Concerns of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium and Arsenic. In T. C. Hutchinson & K. M. Meema (Eds.), Lead, Mercury, Cadmium and Arsenic in the Environment (pp. 53â€“68). John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (2006). Summaries & evaluations: Inorganic and organic lead compounds. In Inorganic and Organic Lead Compounds (Vol. 87).
Jakimska, A., Konieczka, P., Skora, K., & Naiemsnik, J. (2011). Bioaccumulation of metals in tissues of marine animals, part I: the role and impact of heavy metals on organisms. Pol J Environ Stud, 20(5), 1117â€“1125.
Ladipo, M. K., Ajibola, V. O., & Oniye, S. J. (2011). Seasonal variations in physicochemical properties of water in some selected locations of the Lagos Lagoon. Sci World J, 6(4), 5â€“11.
Liu, C. W., Liang, C. P., Lin, K. H., Jang, C. S., Wang, S. W., Huang, Y. K., & Hsueh, Y. M. (2007). Bioaccumulation of arsenic compounds in aquacultural clams (Meretrix lusoria) and assessment of potential carcinogenic risks to human health by ingestion. Chemosphere, 69(1), 128â€“134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.04.038
McClements, D. J. (2003). Analysis of ash and minerals.
Mclusky, D. S. (1989). The estuarine ecosystem. New York: Chapman and Hall.
Mok, J. S., Yoo, H. D., Kim, P. H., & Yoon, H. D. (2014). Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in the Changseon area, Korea, and Assessment of Potential Risk to Human Health. Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 17(3), 313â€“318. https://doi.org/10.5657/FAS.2014.0313
Mok, J. S., Yoo, H. D., Kim, P. H., Yoon, H. D., Park, Y. C., Lee, T. S., Kwon, J. Y., Son, K. T., Lee, H. J., Ha, K. S., Shim, K. B., & Kim, J. H. (2015). Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Oysters from the Southern Coast of Korea: Assessment of Potential Risk to Human Health. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 94, 749â€“755. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-015-1534-4
Molina, V. B. (2012). Non-carcinogenic health risks of heavy metal in mudfish from Laguna Lake. Science Diliman, 24(1), 23â€“32.
Monsalud, F. C., Montesur, J. G., & Abucay, E. R. (2003). Stabilization of Upland Agriculture under El Nino-Induced Climatic Risk: Impact Assessment and Mitigation Measures in the Philippines (No. 71).
Morrison, C., Sun, H., Yao, Y., Loomis, R. A., & Buhro, W. E. (2020). Methods for the ICP-OES Analysis of Semiconductor Materials. Chemistry of Materials, 32(5), 1760â€“1768. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.0c00255
Paez-Osuna, F., & Osuna-Martinez, C. C. (2015). Bioavailability of cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, and zinc in subtropical coastal lagoons from the Southeast Gulf of California using mangrove oyster (Crassostrea corteziensis and Crassostrea palmula). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 68, 305â€“316.
Peer, F. E., Safahieh, A., Sohrab, A. D., & Tochaii, S. P. (2010). Heavy metal concentrations in rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata from Iranian coasts of the Oman Sea. Trakia J, 8(1), 79â€“86.
Petton, B., Pernet, F., Robert, R., & Boudry, P. (2013). Temperature influence on pathogen transmission and subsequent mortalities in juvenile Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. Aquaculture Environment Interactions, 3(3), 257â€“273. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3354/aei00070
Shaari, H., Raven, B., Sultan, K., Mohammad, Y., & Kamaruzzaman, Y. (2016). Status of heavy metal concentrations in oysters (Crassostrea sp.) from Setiu Wetlands, Terengganu, Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana, 45(3), 417â€“424.
Sharif, R., Chong, E., & Meng, C. K. (2016). Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in shellfish from Kudat, Sabah. Malaysian Journal of Nutrition, 22(2), 301â€“305.
Sharifuzzaman, S. M., Rahman, H., Ashekuzzaman, S. M., Islam, M. M., Chowdhury, S. R., & Hossain, M. S. (2016). Heavy Metals Accumulation in Coastal Sediments. In H. Hasegawa, I. Rahman, & M. Rahman (Eds.), Environmental Remediation Technologies for Metal-Contaminated Soils (pp. 21â€“42). Springer Japan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-55759-3
Shi, W., & Wang, M. (2010). Characterization of global ocean turbidity from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer ocean color observations. J Geophys Res, 115(C11), 11â€“22. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JC006160
Shirneshan, G., & Bakhtiari, A. R. (2012). Accumulation and distribution of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the soft tissue and shell of oysters collected from the northern coast of Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf, Iran. Chemical Speciation & Bioavailability, 24(3), 129â€“138. https://doi.org/10.3184/095422912x13394368814321
Sia Su, G., Balamban, J. J. C., Salcedo, J. A. B., Sia Su, M. L. L., Ragragio, E. M., & Ramos, G. B. (2014). Lead accumulation in Katelysia hiantina in selected local markets in Metro Manila, Philippines. Int J Curr Sci, 12, 140â€“143.
Sia Su, G., Martillano, K. J., Alcantara, T. P., Ragragio, E. M., De Jesus, J., Hallare, A., & Ramos, G. B. (2009). Assessing heavy metals in the waters, fish and macroinvertebrates in Manila Bay, Philippines. J Appl Sci Environ Sanit, 4(3), 187â€“195.
Storelli, M. M. (2008). Potential human health risks from metals (Hg, Cd, and Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) via seafood consumption: estimation of target hazard quotients (THQs) and toxic equivalents (TEQs). Food Chem Toxicol, 46(8), 2782â€“2788.
Sy, A. G. A., Tobias, M. L., Borja, V. M., Gatdula, N. C., Santos, M. D., & Furio, E. F. (2017). Profile of Salinity, Temperature, Heavy Metal (Pb, Cd, Hg) and Sediment Hydrogen Sulfide Concentration of Manila Bay, Philippines from 2012 to 2015. The Philippine Journal of Fisheries, 24(1), 116â€“139. https://doi.org/10.31398/tpjf/24.1.2016A0008
Tellez-Plaza, M., Navas-Acien, A., Menke, A., Crainiceanu, C., Pastor-Barriuso, R., & Guallar, E. (2012). Cadmium Exposure and All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in the U.S. General Population. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(7), 1017â€“1022. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104352
Ude, E. F. (2012). Analysis of influential physicochemical variables of Ebonyi River, Nigeria, Nigerian. J Fish, 9(1), 434â€“436.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2019). World Population Prospects 2019, Volume II: Demographic Profiles.
United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). (1996). Method 6010b â€“ inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.
United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). (2000). Risk-based concentration table, Philadelphia PA: United States Environmental Protection Agency.
United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). (2016). Regional Screening Level (RSL) Summary Table (TR=1E-06, HQ=1).
Wang, X. L., Sato, T., Xing, B. S., & Tao, S. (2005). Health risks of heavy metals to the general public in Tianjin, China via consumption of vegetables and fish. Sci Total Environ, 350, 28â€“37.
World Health Organization (WHO). (2008). Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edition incorporating 1st and 2nd addenda. Ganeva: WHO.
World Health Organization (WHO). (2009). Global health risks: Mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks.
Yesudhason, P., Al-Busaidi, M., Al-Rahbi, A. K., Al-Waili, A. S., Al-Nakhaili, A. K., Al-Mazrooei, N. A., & Al-Habsi, S. H. (2013). Distribution patterns of toxic metals in the marine oyster Saccostrea cucullata from the Arabian sea in Oman: spatial, temporal, and size variations. SpringerPlus 2, 282. https://doi.org/0.1186/2193-1801-2-282