Effects of drought and their mitigation strategies in Yobe State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Abdullahi Hassan Gana
M. A. Fullen
D. Oloke


Drought is regarded as a natural phenomenon and its impacts accumulate slowly over a long period. It is considered to be insufficient precipitation that leads to water scarcity, as triggered by meteorological parameters, such as temperature, precipitation and humidity. However, drought mitigation has mostly been reactive, but this has been challenged by extreme events globally. Many countries and regions around the world have made efforts in mitigating drought impacts, including Nigeria. This study produced frameworks for drought amelioration and management as a planning tool for Yobe State, Nigeria. Drought coping strategies have also caused environmental degradation in Yobe State. Farmers over-harvest their farms, practise deforestation and over-exploit wild animals. Several efforts to mitigate the impacts of drought by the Nigerian Government have failed, thus this research adopts a bottom-top approach to mitigate drought impacts in Yobe State. Four validated drought mitigation and management frameworks were developed for Yobe State. The frameworks were evaluated pre-use through respondent validation. State officials and farmers believed that these frameworks will reduce the impacts of drought in Yobe State. The frameworks include social, economic, environmental impact mitigation and an Integrated Drought Mitigation and Management Framework. The proposed frameworks were designed and have advocates a paradigm shift, using both proactive and reactive measures.

Article Details

How to Cite
Gana, A. H., Fullen, M. A., & Oloke, D. (2021). Effects of drought and their mitigation strategies in Yobe State, Nigeria. Sustinere: Journal of Environment and Sustainability, 5(3), 184–200. https://doi.org/10.22515/sustinere.jes.v5i3.189
Aakre, S., Banaszak, I., Mechler, R., Rübbelke, D., Wreford, A., & Kalirai, H. (2010). Financial adaptation to disaster risk in the European Union. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 15, 721–736. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-010-9232-3
Abdullahi, A. B., Iheanacho, A. C., & Ibrahim, A. (2007). Econometric analysis of the relationship between drought and millet production in the arid zone of Nigeria: A Case Study of Borno and Yobe States. Journal of Agriculture and Social Sciences, 2(3), 170–174.
Abubakar, I. U., & Yamusa, M. A. (2013). Recurrence of drought in Nigeria: causes, effects and mitigation. International Journal of Agriculture and Food Science Technology, 4(3), 169–180.
Agnew, C., & Warren, A. (1996). A framework for tackling drought and land degradation. Journal of Arid Environments, 33(3), 309–320. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1006/jare.1996.0067
Alston, M., & Kent, J. (2008). The Big Dry: The link between rural masculinities and poor health outcomes for farming men. Journal of Sociology, 44(2), 133–147. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1177/1440783308089166
Batterbury, S., & Warren, A. (2001). The African Sahel 25 years after the great drought: assessing progress and moving towards new agendas and approaches. Global Environmental Change, 11(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-3780(00)00040-6
Bodner, G., Nakhforoosh, A., & Kaul, H.-P. (2015). Management of crop water under drought: a review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 35, 401–442. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-015-0283-4
Buchanen-Smith, M. (2000). Role of Early Warning Systems in Decision-Making Processes. In Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling.
Daily Trust. (2018). Pastoralist-Farmers Conflicts and the Search for Peaceful Resolution. https://www.dailytrust.com.ng/pastoralist-farmers-conflicts-and-the-search-for-peaceful-resolution.html
Dawoud, M. A., & Raouf, A. R. A. (2009). Groundwater Exploration and Assessment in Rural Communities of Yobe State, Northern Nigeria. Water Resources Management, 23, 581–601. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-008-9289-x
Eludoyin, A. O., & Eludoyin, O. M. (2017). Drought Mitigation Practices, Ch. 19. In S. Eslamian & F. Eslamian (Eds.), Handbook of Drought and Water Scarcity, Vol. 3: Management of Drought and Water Scarcity (pp. 391-403.). Francis and Taylor.
FAO. (2018). Conservation agriculture in Kenya: beating drought and poor harvest. Helping women farmers reach markets - sustainably. http://www.fao.org/fao-stories/article/en/c/1100298/?utm_content=bufferb2499&utm_medium=social&utm_source=linkedin.com&utm_campaign=buffer
Feyen, L., & Dankers, R. (2009). Impact of global warming on streamflow drought in Europe. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 114(D17), 17–34. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD011438
FGN. (2005). Committee for the Review of the Implementation of the Convention (CRIC). Combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought in Nigeria, National Report on the Implementation of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Countr.
FME. (2012). Great Green Wall for the Sahara and Sahel initiative. National Strategic Action Plan. Federal Ministry of Environment. https://www.fao.org/3/av139e/av139e.pdf
Ghai, D. (1990). The social dynamics of environmental changes in Africa, Whydah Africa Academic Science. Newsletter, 21a, 1–8.
Hassan, A. G., Fullen, M. A., & Oloke, D. (2019). Problems of drought and its management in Yobe State, Nigeria. Weather and Climate Extremes, 23(January), 100192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wace.2019.100192
HMNDP. (2013). International Conference Centre (CICG).
ITF. (2017). The Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel. http://internationaltreefoundation.org/the-great-green-wall-for-the-sahara-and-the-sahel/
Jenkins, K. L. (2012). Modelling the Economic and Social Consequences of Drought under Future Projections of Climate Change [University of Cambridge]. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.16425 Abstract
Keshavarz, M., Karami, E., & Vanclay, F. (2013). The social experience of drought in rural Iran. Land Use Policy, 30(1), 120–129. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2012.03.003
Medugu, N. I. (2009). Nigeria and the advancing Desert. Environmental Synergy World Press.com.
Mishra, A.K, Sivakumar, B., & Singh, V. (2015). Drought processes, modelling, and mitigation. Journal of Hydrology, 526, 1–2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.03.054
Mishra, Ashok K., & Singh, V. P. (2011). Drought modeling – A review. Journal of Hydrology, 403(1–2), 157–175. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.03.049
Msangi, J. P. (2004). Drought hazard and desertification management in the dry lands of southern Africa. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 99, 75–87. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-004-4002-x
Musa, H. D., & Shaib, B. (2010). Integrated remote sensing approach to desertification monitoring in the crop-rangeland area of Yobe State, Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 12(5), 236–250.
Musa, K. (2011). Groundwater occurrence in Damaturu and its environs Yobe state, north eastern Nigeria. Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.
Nwokocha, C. O. (2017a). An Appraisal of the Strategies Implored by Government to Combating Drought and Desertification in the North-East Geo-Political Zone, 2004-2014. Review Pub Administration Manag, 5(205), 2.
Nwokocha, C. O. (2017b). The Challenges Facing the Effective Implementation of Drought and Desertification Policy in North-East Geo-political Zone of Nigeria. Arts and Social Sciences Journal, 8(4), 289. https://doi.org/DOI: 10.4172/2151-6200.1000289
Oladipo, E. O. (1993). A comprehensive approach to drought and desertification in Northern Nigeria. Naural Hazards, 8, 235–261. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00690910
Olagunju, T. E. (2015). Drought, desertification and the Nigerian environment: A review. Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment, 7(7), 196–209. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.5897/JENE2015. 0523
Olsson, L. (1993). On the Causes of Famine: Drought, Desertification and Market Failure in the Sudan. Ambio, 22(6), 395–403. https://doi.org/https://www.jstor.org/stable/4314110
Prăvălie, R. (2016). Drylands extent and environmental issues. A global approach. Earth-Science Reviews, 161, 259–278. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2016.08.003
Shiferaw, B., Tesfaye, K., Kassie, M., Abate, T., Prasanna, B. M., & Menkir, A. (2014). Managing vulnerability to drought and enhancing livelihood resilience in sub-Saharan Africa: Technological, institutional and policy options. Weather and Climate Extremes, 3, 67–79. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wace.2014.04.004
Shiru, M. S., Shahid, S., Alias, N., & Eun-Sung, C. (2018). Trend Analysis of Droughts during Crop Growing Seasons of Nigeria. Sustainability, 10(3), 871. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030871
Terhile, A. (2017). Desert encroachment and security challenges in North East Nigeria. University of Calabar, Nigeria.
Vicente-Serrano, S. M., Beguería, S., Gimeno, L., Eklunh, L., Giuliani, G., Weston, D., Kenawy, A. El, López-Moreno, J. I., Raquel Nieto, Ayenew, T., Konte, D., Ardö, J., & Pegram, G. G. S. (2012). Challenges for drought mitigation in Africa: The potential use of geospatial data and drought information systems. Applied Geography, 34, 471–486. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2012.02.001
Waskom, R. W. (1994). Best Management Practices For Irrigation Management. Colorado State University Cooperative Extension.
West, C. T., Roncoli, C., & Ouattara, F. (2008). Local perceptions and regional climate trends on the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso. Land Degradation & Development, 19(3), 289–304. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.842
WFP. (2018). How Farmers in Kenya Are Beating the Effects of drought.
Wilhite, D. A. (2005). Drought and Water Crises. CRC Press. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1201/9781420028386
Wilhite, D. A. (2016). Drought-management policies and preparedness plans: changing the paradigm from crisis to risk management. In Land Restoration: Reclaiming Landscapes for a Sustainable Future (pp. 443–462). Academic Press. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-801231-4.00007-0
Wilhite, D. A., Svoboda, M. D., & Hayes, M. J. (2007). Understanding the complex impacts of drought: A key to enhancing drought mitigation and preparedness. Water Resources Management, 21, 763–774. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-006-9076-5
Wilhite, D., & Pulwarty, R. (2005). Drought and water crises: lessons learned and the road ahead. In Donald A. Wilhite (Ed.), Drought and Water Crises: Science, Technology, and Management Issues. CNC Press, Taylor & Francis.
Wossen, T., Abdoulaye, T., Alene, A., Feleke, S., Menkir, A., & Manyong, V. (2017). Measuring the impacts of adaptation strategies to drought stress: The case of drought tolerant maize varieties. Journal of Environmental Management, 203(1), 106–113. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.06.058
Zimmerman, F. J., & Carter, M. R. (2003). Asset smoothing, consumption smoothing and the reproduction of inequality under risk and subsistence constraints. Journal of Development Economics, 7(1), 233–260. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3878(03)00028-2