Carbon emission from biodiversity research conferences in Indonesia

Main Article Content

Andes Hamuraby Rozak
http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9641-5830
Decky Indrawan Junaedi
http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5846-6135

Abstract

Participants in scientific conferences have been traveling to the cities of conference venues. These mobilizations left carbon footprints due to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions generated from the scientists' transportation to their conference venue. This study looks at the carbon footprint of scientists who attended scientific biodiversity conferences in Indonesia from 2015 to 2019. We have identified that 30 scientific biodiversity conferences were conducted in 17 cities on five different islands during the corresponding period. The conferences have published 3092 scientific articles written by 9617 authors from various disciplines. The estimated carbon emission due to those scientists' transportation was 622 tons CO2-eq. This emission figure is almost equivalent to the emission produced by a person circling the earth 91 times using a passenger aircraft. A new paradigm of virtual conference should be considered to minimize the carbon footprint resulted from the scientists' transportation to and from the conference venue. Thus, the CO2-eq emissions released by scientists' transport can be reduced significantly. These emission reductions may mitigate and minimize the magnitude and impact of climate change to some extent.

Article Details

How to Cite
Rozak, A. H., & Junaedi, D. I. (2022). Carbon emission from biodiversity research conferences in Indonesia. Sustinere: Journal of Environment and Sustainability, 6(2), 112–120. https://doi.org/10.22515/sustinerejes.v6i2.191
Section
Articles
Author Biography

Andes Hamuraby Rozak, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)

Senior Researcher of Ecology and Conservation at the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)

References

AAchten, W. M. J., Almeida, J., & Muys, B. (2013). Carbon footprint of science: More than flying. Ecological Indicators, 34, 352–355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2013.05.025

Amelia, M., & Rahmaida, R. (2017). Produktivitas ilmiah peneliti Indonesia pada penelitian keanekaragaman hayati Indonesia berdasarkan basis data Scopus 1990-2015. Jurnal Biologi Indonesia, 13(2), 241–251. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.14203/jbi.v13i2.3398

Badrun, U. (2018). Ketahanan Nasional Indonesia Bidang Politik Di Era Demokrasi Digital (Tantangan Tahun Politik 2018-2019 dan Antisipasinya). Jurnal Kajian Lemhannas R, 33(Maret), 21–36.

Baliga, J., Kerry, H., Robert, A., & Rodney S, T. (2009). Carbon footprint of the internet. Telecommunications Journal of Australia, 59(1), 5.1-5.14.

Barber, P. H., Ablan-Lagman, M. C. A., Ambariyanto, A., Berlinck, R. G. S., Cahyani, D., Crandall, E. D., Ravago-Gotanco, R., Juinio-Meñez, M. A., Mahardika, I. G. N., Shanker, K., Starger, C. J., Toha, A. H. A.,

Anggoro, A. W., & Willette, D. A. (2014). Advancing biodiversity research in developing countries: The need for changing paradigms. Bulletin of Marine Science, 90(1), 187–210. https://doi.org/10.5343/bms.2012.1108

Brearley, F. Q., Adinugroho, W. C., Cámara-Leret, R., Krisnawati, H., Ledo, A., Qie, L., Smith, T. E. L., Aini, F., Garnier, F., Lestari, N. S., Mansur, M., Murdjoko, A., Oktarita, S., Soraya, E., Tata, H. L., Tiryana, T., Trethowan, L. A., Wheeler, C. E., Abdullah, M., … Webb, C. O. (2019). Opportunities and challenges for an Indonesian forest monitoring network. Annals of Forest Science, 76(2). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13595-019-0840-0

Deng, T. (2013). Impacts of Transport Infrastructure on Productivity and Economic Growth: Recent Advances and Research Challenges. Transport Reviews, 33(6), 686–699. https://doi.org/10.1080/01441647.2013.851745

Dolci, W. W., Boldt, M. S., Dodson, K. E., & Pilcher, C. B. (2011). Leading the charge to virtual meetings. Science, 331(6018), 674.

Eroğlu, H. (2020). Effects of Covid‑19 outbreak on environment and renewable energy sector. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 23, 4782–4790.

Fadlelmola, F. M., Panji, S., Ahmed, A. E., Ghouila, A., Akurugu, W. A., Domelevo Entfellner, J. B., Souiai, O., Mulder, N., Abdelhak, S., Adebiyi, E., Allali, I., Alzohairy, A. M., Amzazi, S., Badaoui, B., Bbosa, N., Benkhala, A., Bensellak, T., Bishop, O. T., Botha, G., … Wells, G. (2019). Ten simple rules for organizing a webinar series. PLoS Computational Biology, 15(4), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006671

Firman, T., Kombaitan, B., & Pradono, P. (2007). The dynamics of Indonesia’s urbanisation, 1980–2006. Urban Policy and Research, 25(4), 433–454. https://doi.org/10.1080/08111140701540752

Fulton, L., Mejia, A., Arioli, M., Dematera, K., & Lah, O. (2017). Climate change mitigation pathways for Southeast Asia: CO2 emissions reduction policies for the energy and transport sectors. Sustainability (Switzerland), 9(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/su9071160

Hamant, O., Saunders, T., & Viasnoff, V. (2019). Seven steps to make travel to scientific conferences more sustainable. Nature, 573(7774), 451–452. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-019-02747-6

Hansen, J., Sato, M., & Ruedy, R. (2012). Perception of climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(37). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1205276109

IPCC. (2014). Climate change 2014: Synthesis report. (p. 151 pp.) [Contribution on Working Groups I, II, and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change]. IPCC.

Kusharjanto, H., & Kim, D. (2011). Infrastructure and human development: The case of Java, Indonesia. Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 16(1), 111–124. https://doi.org/10.1080/13547860.2011.539407

Le Quéré, C., Jackson, R. B., Jones, M. W., Smith, A. J. P., Abernethy, S., Andrew, R. M., De-Gol, A. J., Willis, D. R., Shan, Y., Canadell, J. G., Friedlingstein, P., Creutzig, F., & Peters, G. P. (2020). Temporary reduction in daily global CO2 emissions during the COVID-19 forced confinement. Nature Climate Change, 10(7), 647–653. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-020-0797-x

Montzka, S. A., Dlugokencky, E. J., & Butler, J. H. (2011). Non-CO 2 greenhouse gases and climate change. Nature, 476(7358), 43–50. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10322

Nathans, J., & Sterling, P. (2016). Point of View: How scientists can reduce their carbon footprint. ELife, 5, e15928.

Porpiglia, F., Checcucci, E., Autorino, R., Amparore, D., Cooperberg, M. R., Ficarra, V., & Novara, G. (2020). Traditional and Virtual Congress Meetings During the COVID-19 Pandemic and the Post-COVID-19 Era: Is it Time to Change the Paradigm? European Urology, 78(3), 301–303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2020.04.018

R Core Team. (2020). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing.

Reay, D. S. (2003). Virtual solution to carbon cost of conferences. Nature, 424(6946), 251–251.

Riswan, S., & Yamada, I. (2006). A note on the progress of biodiversity research in Indonesia. Tropics, 15(3), 249–258. https://doi.org/10.3759/tropics.15.249

Rosen, J. (2017). Sustainability: A greener culture. Nature, 546(7659), 565–567.

Rowley-Jolivet, E. (1999). The pivotal role of conference papers in the network of scientific communication. ASp, 23–26, 179–196. https://doi.org/10.4000/asp.2394

RStudio. (2020). RStudio: Integrated development for R . RStudio PBC. http://www.rstudio.com/.

Scholze, M., Knorr, W., Arnell, N. W., & Prentice, I. C. (2006). A climate-change risk analysis for world ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(35), 13116–13120. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0601816103

Sims, R., Schaeffer, R., Creutzig, F., Cruz-Nunez, X., D’Agosto, M., Dimitriu, D., Meza, M. J. F., Fulton, L., Kobayashi, S., Lah, O., McKinnon, A., Newman, P., Ouyang, M., Schauer, J. J., Sperling, D., & Tiwari, G. (2014). Coordinating Lead Authors:Nienke. In Science.

Solihah, R. (2018). Peluang dan tantangan pemilu serentak 2019 dalam perspektif politik. Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Pemerintahan, 3(1), 73. https://doi.org/10.14710/jiip.v3i1.3234

Spinellis, D., & Louridas, P. (2013). The Carbon Footprint of Conference Papers. PLoS ONE, 8(6), 6–13. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066508

Wheeler, T., & Von Braun, J. (2013). Climate change impacts on global food security. Science, 341(6145), 508–513. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1239402

Wiederhold, B. K. (2020). Connecting through Technology during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic: Avoiding “zoom Fatigue.” Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 23(7), 437–438. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2020.29188.bkw

Zambrano-Monserrate, M. A., Ruano, M. A., & Sanchez-Alcalde, L. (2020). Indirect effects of COVID-19 on the environment. Science of the Total Environment, 728. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138813