Microplastics ingestions by wild and aquaculture marine bivalves: A systematic review on field investigation study

Main Article Content

Ni Luh Gede Rai Ayu Saraswati


Plastics degradation has resulted in a major threat to marine organisms, including bivalves. Thirty-three peer-reviewed papers have been reviewed to understand the geographical spread of microplastics ingestion by marine bivalves, characteristics of microplastics ingested, and limitation of microplastics analysis globallly. Only studies on microplastics investigation in marine bivalves from wild and aquaculture area were selected. Marine bivalves are reported to accumulate microplastics from all marine environment compartments. High proximity area with intensive human activities is suggested to increase the uptake of microplastics by the bivalves. Microfibers and fragments are the common types of microplastics ingested by the bivalves around the world, with various sizes (0.45µm – <45mm) and number of particles per individual (20 – ~175 particles/individual). However, there is uncertainty when comparing the findings from one study to another due to the absence of international standard protocol and microplastics data base. Therefore, this limitation should be addressed prior to monitoring microplastics accumulation in marine bivalves.

Article Details

How to Cite
Saraswati, N. L. G. R. A. (2023). Microplastics ingestions by wild and aquaculture marine bivalves: A systematic review on field investigation study . Sustinere: Journal of Environment and Sustainability, 7(1), 15–26. https://doi.org/10.22515/sustinerejes.v7i1.294

Baechler, B. R., Granek, E. F., Hunter, M. v., & Conn, K. E. (2020). Microplastic concentrations in two Oregon bivalve species: Spatial, temporal, and species variability. Limnology and Oceanography Letters, 5(1), 54–65. https://doi.org/10.1002/LOL2.10124

Birnstiel, S., Soares-Gomes, A., & da Gama, B. A. P. (2019). Depuration reduces microplastic content in wild and farmed mussels. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 140, 241–247. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MARPOLBUL.2019.01.044

Bråte, I. L. N., Hurley, R., Iversen, K., Beyer, J., Thomas, K. v., Steindal, C. C., Green, N. W., Olsen, M., & Lusher, A. (2018). Mytilus spp. as sentinels for monitoring microplastic pollution in Norwegian coastal waters: A qualitative and quantitative study. Environmental Pollution, 243, 383–393. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENVPOL.2018.08.077

Browne, M. A., Crump, P., Niven, S. J., Teuten, E., Tonkin, A., Galloway, T., & Thompson, R. (2011). Accumulation of microplastic on shorelines woldwide: Sources and sinks. Environmental Science and Technology, 45(21), 9175–9179. https://doi.org/10.1021/es201811s

Castro, R. O., Silva, M. L., Marques, M. R. C., & de Araújo, F. v. (2016). Evaluation of microplastics in Jurujuba Cove, Niterói, RJ, Brazil, an area of mussels farming. Marine Pollution Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.05.037

Covernton, G. A., Collicutt, B., Gurney-Smith, H. J., Pearce, C. M., Dower, J. F., Ross, P. S., & Dudas, S. E. (2019). Microplastics in bivalves and their habitat in relation to shellfish aquaculture proximity in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Aquaculture Environment Interactions, 11, 357–374. https://doi.org/10.3354/AEI00316

Davidson, K., & Dudas, S. E. (2016). Microplastic ingestion by wild and cultured Manila clams (Venerupis philippinarum) from Baynes Sound, British Columbia. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 71(2), 147–156. https://doi.org/10.1007/S00244-016-0286-4/FIGURES/3

de Falco, F., di Pace, E., Cocca, M., & Avella, M. (2019). The contribution of washing processes of synthetic clothes to microplastic pollution. Scientific Reports 2019 9:1, 9(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-43023-x

de Sá, L. C., Oliveira, M., Ribeiro, F., Rocha, T. L., & Futter, M. N. (2018). Studies of the effects of microplastics on aquatic organisms: What do we know and where should we focus our efforts in the future? Science of The Total Environment, 645, 1029–1039. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2018.07.207

Desforges, J. P. W., Galbraith, M., & Ross, P. S. (2015). Ingestion of microplastics by zooplankton in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 69(3), 320–330. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-015-0172-5

de Witte, B., Devriese, L., Bekaert, K., Hoffman, S., Vandermeersch, G., Cooreman, K., & Robbens, J. (2014). Quality assessment of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis): Comparison between commercial and wild types. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 85(1), 146–155. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MARPOLBUL.2014.06.006

Digka, N., Tsangaris, C., Torre, M., Anastasopoulou, A., & Zeri, C. (2018). Microplastics in mussels and fish from the Northern Ionian Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 135, 30–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MARPOLBUL.2018.06.063

Ding, J. F., Li, J. X., Sun, C. J., He, C. F., Jiang, F. H., Gao, F. L., & Zheng, L. (2018). Separation and identification of microplastics in digestive system of bivalves. Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 46(5), 690–697. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1872-2040(18)61086-2

Ding, J., Sun, C., Li, J., Shi, H., Xu, X., Ju, P., Jiang, F., & Li, F. (2022). Microplastics in global bivalve mollusks: A call for protocol standardization. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 438, 129490. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JHAZMAT.2022.129490

Erni-Cassola, G., Zadjelovic, V., Gibson, M. I., & Christie-Oleza, J. A. (2019). Distribution of plastic polymer types in the marine environment; A meta-analysis. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 369, 691–698. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JHAZMAT.2019.02.067

Frias, J. P. G. L., & Nash, R. (2018). Microplastics: Finding a consensus on the definition. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.11.022

Galgani, F., Hanke, G., & Maes, T. (2015). Global distribution, composition and abundance of marine litter. Marine Anthropogenic Litter, 29–56. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16510-3_2

Gall, S. C., & Thompson, R. C. (2015). The impact of debris on marine life. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 92(1–2), 170–179. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MARPOLBUL.2014.12.041

Geyer, R., Jambeck, J. R., & Law, K. L. (2017). Production, use, and fate of all plastics ever made. Science Advances, 3(7). https://doi.org/10.1126/SCIADV.1700782/SUPPL_FILE/1700782_SM.PDF

Gomiero, A., Strafella, P., Øysæd, K. B., & Fabi, G. (2019). First occurrence and composition assessment of microplastics in native mussels collected from coastal and offshore areas of the northern and central Adriatic Sea. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(24), 24407–24416. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11356-019-05693-Y/FIGURES/7

Hermabessiere, L., Paul-Pont, I., Cassone, A. L., Himber, C., Receveur, J., Jezequel, R., el Rakwe, M., Rinnert, E., Rivière, G., Lambert, C., Huvet, A., Dehaut, A., Duflos, G., & Soudant, P. (2019). Microplastic contamination and pollutant levels in mussels and cockles collected along the channel coasts. Environmental Pollution, 250, 807–819. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENVPOL.2019.04.051

Jambeck, J. R., Geyer, R., Wilcox, C., Siegler, T. R., Perryman, M., Andrady, A., Narayan, R., & Law, K. L. (2015). Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean. Science, 347(6223), 768–771. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1260352

Kaiser, D., Kowalski, N., & Waniek, J. J. (2017). Effects of biofouling on the sinking behavior of microplastics. Environmental Research Letters, 12(12), 124003. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/AA8E8B

Kazour, M., & Amara, R. (2020). Is blue mussel caging an efficient method for monitoring environmental microplastics pollution? Science of the Total Environment, 710, 135649. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2019.135649

Lamb, J. B., Willis, B. L., Fiorenza, E. A., Couch, C. S., Howard, R., Rader, D. N., True, J. D., Kelly, L. A., Ahmad, A., Jompa, J., & Harvell, C. D. (2018). Plastic waste associated with disease on coral reefs. Science, 359(6374), 460–462. https://doi.org/10.1126/SCIENCE.AAR3320/SUPPL_FILE/AAR3320_LAMB_SM.PDF

Li, J., Lusher, A. L., Rotchell, J. M., Deudero, S., Turra, A., Bråte, I. L. N., Sun, C., Shahadat Hossain, M., Li, Q., Kolandhasamy, P., & Shi, H. (2019). Using mussel as a global bioindicator of coastal microplastic pollution. Environmental Pollution. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.10.032

Li, J., Qu, X., Su, L., Zhang, W., Yang, D., Kolandhasamy, P., Li, D., & Shi, H. (2016). Microplastics in mussels along the coastal waters of China. Environmental Pollution. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.04.012

Lusher, A., Hollman, P., & Mendoza-Hill, J. (2017). Microplastics in fisheries and aquaculture: Status of knowledge on their occurrence and implications for aquatic organisms and food safety.

Maddah, H. A. (2016). Polypropylene as a promising plastic: A review. American Journal of Polymer Science, 6(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.5923/J.AJPS.20160601.01

Markic, A., Gaertner, J. C., Gaertner-Mazouni, N., & Koelmans, A. A. (2020). Plastic ingestion by marine fish in the wild. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 50(7), 657–697. https://doi.org/10.1080/10643389.2019.1631990

Mathalon, A., & Hill, P. (2014). Microplastic fibers in the intertidal ecosystem surrounding Halifax Harbor, Nova Scotia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 81(1), 69–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MARPOLBUL.2014.02.018

Meijer, L. J. J., van Emmerik, T., van der Ent, R., Schmidt, C., & Lebreton, L. (2021). More than 1000 rivers account for 80% of global riverine plastic emissions into the ocean. Science Advances, 7(18). eaaz5803 https://doi.org/10.1126/SCIADV.AAZ5803/SUPPL_FILE/AAZ5803_SM.PDF

Mishra, S., Rath, C. charan, & Das, A. P. (2019). Marine microfiber pollution: A review on present status and future challenges. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.01.039

Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., Altman, D., Antes, G., Atkins, D., Barbour, V., Barrowman, N., Berlin, J. A., Clark, J., Clarke, M., Cook, D., D’Amico, R., Deeks, J. J., Devereaux, P. J., Dickersin, K., Egger, M., Ernst, E., … Tugwell, P. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Medicine, 6(7). 264-269. https://doi.org/10.1371/JOURNAL.PMED.1000097

OECD. (2022). Global Plastics Outlook: Economic drivers, environmental impact, and policy options. In Global Plastics Outlook. OECD. https://doi.org/10.1787/DE747AEF-EN

Phuong, N. N., Poirier, L., Pham, Q. T., Lagarde, F., & Zalouk-Vergnoux, A. (2018). Factors influencing the microplastic contamination of bivalves from the French Atlantic coast: Location, season and/or mode of life? Marine Pollution Bulletin, 129(2), 664–674. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MARPOLBUL.2017.10.054

Phuong, N. N., Zalouk-Vergnoux, A., Kamari, A., Mouneyrac, C., Amiard, F., Poirier, L., & Lagarde, F. (2018). Quantification and characterization of microplastics in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis): protocol setup and preliminary data on the contamination of the French Atlantic coast. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(7), 6135–6144. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11356-017-8862-3/FIGURES/4

Plastics Europe. (2011). Plastics-the Facts 2011: An analysis of European plastics production, demand and recovery for 2010.

Plastics Europe. (2022). Plastics-the Facts 2022.

Qu, X., Su, L., Li, H., Liang, M., & Shi, H. (2018). Assessing the relationship between the abundance and properties of microplastics in water and in mussels. Science of The Total Environment, 621, 679–686. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2017.11.284

Reguera, P., Viñas, L., & Gago, J. (2019). Microplastics in wild mussels (Mytilus spp.) from the north coast of Spain. Scientia Marina, 83(4), 337–347. https://doi.org/10.3989/SCIMAR.04927.05A

Renzi, M., Guerranti, C., & Blašković, A. (2018). Microplastic contents from maricultured and natural mussels. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 131, 248–251. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MARPOLBUL.2018.04.035

Santana, M. F. M., Ascer, L. G., Custódio, M. R., Moreira, F. T., & Turra, A. (2016). Microplastic contamination in natural mussel beds from a Brazilian urbanized coastal region: Rapid evaluation through bioassessment. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 106(1–2), 183–189. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MARPOLBUL.2016.02.074

Scott, N., Porter, A., Santillo, D., Simpson, H., Lloyd-Williams, S., & Lewis, C. (2019). Particle characteristics of microplastics contaminating the mussel Mytilus edulis and their surrounding environments. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 146, 125–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MARPOLBUL.2019.05.041

ter Halle, A., Ladirat, L., Gendre, X., Goudouneche, D., Pusineri, C., Routaboul, C., Tenailleau, C., Duployer, B., & Perez, E. (2016). Understanding the fragmentation pattern of marine plastic debris. Environmental Science and Technology, 50(11), 5668–5675. https://doi.org/10.1021/ACS.EST.6B00594/SUPPL_FILE/ES6B00594_SI_001.PDF

Thiele, C. J., Hudson, M. D., & Russell, A. E. (2019). Evaluation of existing methods to extract microplastics from bivalve tissue: Adapted KOH digestion protocol improves filtration at single-digit pore size. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 142, 384–393. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MARPOLBUL.2019.03.003

van Cauwenberghe, L., & Janssen, C. R. (2014). Microplastics in bivalves cultured for human consumption. Environmental Pollution, 193, 65–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENVPOL.2014.06.010

van der Schatte Olivier, A., Jones, L., Vay, L. le, Christie, M., Wilson, J., & Malham, S. K. (2020). A global review of the ecosystem services provided by bivalve aquaculture. Reviews in Aquaculture, 12(1), 3–25. https://doi.org/10.1111/RAQ.12301

Ward, J. E., Rosa, M., & Shumway, S. E. (2019). Capture, ingestion, and egestion of microplastics by suspension-feeding bivalves: a 40-year history. Anthropocene Coasts, 2(1). 39-49. https://doi.org/10.1139/anc-2018-0027

Webb, S., Ruffell, H., Marsden, I., Pantos, O., & Gaw, S. (2019). Microplastics in the New Zealand green lipped mussel Perna canaliculus. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 149, 110641. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MARPOLBUL.2019.110641

Wijsman, J. W. M., Troost, K., Fang, J., & Roncarati, A. (2018). Global production of marine bivalves. Trends and challenges. Goods and Services of Marine Bivalves, 7–26. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-96776-9_2/FIGURES/5

Wright, Fan, A. C., Ying, & George L. (2018). Nutritional value and food safety of bivalve molluscan shellfish. Journal of Shellfish Research, 37(4), 695–708. https://doi.org/10.2983/035.037.0403