Main Article Content
This study aimed at investigating the potential of electrocoagulation (EC) process using Al-Al and Al-Ti electrodes for the pre-treatment of instant coffee processing wastewater. Effects of various operating conditions, including cell voltage, time of treatment, inter-electrode distance, pH of solution, solution conductivity and agitation speed on the removals of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color were considered. The maximum removal of COD and color was achieved at 87% and 99%, respectively, corresponding to COD and color in the effluents of 359-384 mg/L and 58-101 Pt-Co. Biodegradability of treated wastewater was significantly improved since BOD5/COD increased from initial value of 0.42 to 0.65 after treatment. Nether mixing nor adding of electrolyte was recommended. Moreover, the COD removal kinetics during EC process appeared to follow the first-order kinetic model. The operating costs were also determined as a reference for cost assessment of the treatment.
Adhoum, N., Monser, L. (2004). Decolourization and removal of phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater by electrocoagulation. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 43(10), 1281-1287.
Akyol, A. (2012). Treatment of paint manufacturing wastewater by electrocoagulation. Desalination, 285, 91-99.
Ardhan, N., Ruttithiwapanich, T., Songkasiri, W., Phalakornkule, C. (2015). Comparison of performance of continuous-flow and batch electrocoagulators: A case study for eliminating reactive blue 21 using iron electrodes. Sep. Purif. Technol., 146, 75-84.
Asha, G., Kumar, B. M. (2016). Comparison of aluminium and iron electrodes for cod reduction from coffee processing wastewater by electrocoagulation process. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 1-10.
Bayar, S., YÄ±ldÄ±z, Y. Åž., YÄ±lmaz, A. E., Ä°rdemez, Åž. (2011). The effect of stirring speed and current density on removal efficiency of poultry slaughterhouse wastewater by electrocoagulation method. Desalination, 280(1-3), 103-107.
Bayramoglu, M., Kobya, M., Can, O. T., Sozbir, M. (2004). Operating cost analysis of electrocoagulation of textile dye wastewater. Sep. Purif. Technol., 37(2), 117-125.
Benaissa, F., Kermet-Said, H., Moulai-Mostefa, N. (2016). Optimization and kinetic modeling of electrocoagulation treatment of dairy wastewater. Desalination and Water Treatment, 57(13), 5988-5994.
Bensadok, K., Benammar, S., Lapicque, F., Nezzal, G. (2008). Electrocoagulation of cutting oil emulsions using aluminium plate electrodes. J. Hazard. Mater., 152(1), 423-430.
Bui, H. M. (2017). Optimization of electrocoagulation of instant coffee production wastewater using the response surface methodology. Polish Journal of Chemical Technology, 19(2), 67-71.
Clarke, R. J. (2012a). Coffee: Volume 1: Chemistry. Springer Netherlands.
Clarke, R. J. (2012b). Coffee: Volume 2: Technology. Springer Netherlands.
Clesceri, L. S., Eaton, A. D., Greenberg, A. E., Association, A. P. H., Association, A. W. W., Federation, W. E. (1998). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. American Public Health Association.
Coskun, T., Ä°lhan, F., Demir, N. M., Debik, E., Kurt, U. (2012). Optimization of energy costs in the pretreatment of olive mill wastewaters by electrocoagulation. Environ. Technol., 33(7), 801-807.
Daneshvar, N., Sorkhabi, H. A., Kasiri, M. (2004). Decolorization of dye solution containing Acid Red 14 by electrocoagulation with a comparative investigation of different electrode connections. J. Hazard. Mater., 112(1-2), 55-62.
Espinoza-Quinones, F. R., Fornari, M. M., MÃ³denes, A. N., PalÃ¡cio, S. M., da Silva Jr, F. G., Szymanski, N., Kroumov, A. D., Trigueros, D. E. (2009). Pollutant removal from tannery effluent by electrocoagulation. Chem. Eng. J., 151(1-3), 59-65.
Feng, J.-w., Sun, Y.-b., Zheng, Z., Zhang, J.-b., Shu, L., Tian, Y.-c. (2007). Treatment of tannery wastewater by electrocoagulation. J. Environ. Sci., 19(12), 1409-1415.
Gengec, E., Kobya, M., Demirbas, E., Akyol, A., Oktor, K. (2012). Optimization of baker's yeast wastewater using response surface methodology by electrocoagulation. Desalination, 286, 200-209.
Holt, P. K., Barton, G. W., Mitchell, C. A. (2005). The future for electrocoagulation as a localised water treatment technology. Chemosphere, 59(3), 355-367.
Khandegar, V., Saroha, A. K. (2013). Electrocoagulation for the treatment of textile industry effluent â€“ A review. J. Environ. Manage., 128, 949-963.
Kirk, R. F., Othmer, D. F., Grayson, M. (1985). Kirk-Othmer concise encyclopedia of chemical technology. John Wiley & Sons.
Kobya, M., Ciftci, C., Bayramoglu, M., Sensoy, M. (2008). Study on the treatment of waste metal cutting fluids using electrocoagulation. Sep. Purif. Technol., 60(3), 285-291.
Kobya, M., Gengec, E., Demirbas, E. (2016). Operating parameters and costs assessments of a real dyehouse wastewater effluent treated by a continuous electrocoagulation process. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 101, 87-100.
Kobya, M., Hiz, H., Senturk, E., Aydiner, C., Demirbas, E. (2006). Treatment of potato chips manufacturing wastewater by electrocoagulation. Desalination, 190(1-3), 201-211.
Lekhlif, B., Oudrhiri, L., Zidane, F., Drogui, P., Blais, J.-F. (2014). Study of the electrocoagulation of electroplating industry wastewaters charged by nickel (II) and chromium (VI). J. Mater. Environ. Sci, 5(1), 111-120.
Mahesh, S., Srikantha, H., Lobo, A. L. (2014). Performance evaluation of two batch operations using electrochemical coagulation followed by sequential batch reactor in treating coffee wastewater. Int. J. Chem. Tech. Res., 6(1), 339-346.
Modirshahla, N., Behnajady, M., Mohammadi-Aghdam, S. (2008). Investigation of the effect of different electrodes and their connections on the removal efficiency of 4-nitrophenol from aqueous solution by electrocoagulation. J. Hazard. Mater., 154(1-3), 778-786.
Mollah, M. Y. A., Morkovsky, P., Gomes, J. A. G., Kesmez, M., Parga, J., Cocke, D. L. (2004). Fundamentals, present and future perspectives of electrocoagulation. J. Hazard. Mater., 114(1â€“3), 199-210.
Mollah, M. Y. A., Schennach, R., Parga, J. R., Cocke, D. L. (2001). Electrocoagulation (EC) â€” science and applications. J. Hazard. Mater., 84(1), 29-41.
Mountassir, Y., Benyaich, A., BerÃ§ot, P., Rezrazi, M. (2015). Potential use of clay in electrocoagulation process of textile wastewater: Treatment performance and flocs characterization. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 3(4), 2900-2908.
Oncel, M., Muhcu, A., Demirbas, E., Kobya, M. (2013). A comparative study of chemical precipitation and electrocoagulation for treatment of coal acid drainage wastewater. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 1(4), 989-995.
Perez, S. R., Silva, R. M. P., Boizan, M. F. (2000). Study of the anaerobic biodegradability of the wastewaters of the humid benefit of the coffee. Interciencia, 25, 386-390.
Rattan, S., Parande, A., Nagaraju, V., Ghiwari, G. K. (2015). A comprehensive review on utilization of wastewater from coffee processing. Environ Sci Pollut Res, 22(9), 6461-6472.
Sahu, O., Mazumdar, B., Chaudhari, P. K. (2014). Treatment of wastewater by electrocoagulation: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res, 21(4), 2397-2413.
Shen, F., Chen, X., Gao, P., Chen, G. (2003). Electrochemical removal of fluoride ions from industrial wastewater. Chemical Engineering Science, 58(3-6), 987-993.
Un, U. T., Aytac, E. (2013). Electrocoagulation in a packed bed reactor-complete treatment of color and cod from real textile wastewater. J. Environ. Manage., 123, 113-119.
Vasudevan, S., Lakshmi, J., Sozhan, G. (2011). Effects of alternating and direct current in electrocoagulation process on the removal of cadmium from water. J. Hazard. Mater., 192(1), 26-34.
Yavuz, Y., Koparal, A. S., Ã–ÄŸÃ¼tveren, Ãœ. B. (2010). Treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater by electrochemical methods. Desalination, 258(1-3), 201-205.
Zodi, S., Louvet, J.-N., Michon, C., Potier, O., Pons, M.-N., Lapicque, F., Leclerc, J.-P. (2011). Electrocoagulation as a tertiary treatment for paper mill wastewater: Removal of non-biodegradable organic pollution and arsenic. Sep. Purif. Technol., 81(1), 62-68.