Main Article Content
The consequences of enhanced PAH deposition and accumulation in food crop and other biota can be traced to environmental pollution through human activities which has improved due to industrial revolution. The impact of this phenomena has been observed in the food chain as this toxicant accumulates within its system and therefore, it can be exposed to human being with detrimental effect. The study compared exposure of edible vegetables to PAH from spent engine oil and three purchased PAH component (benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(ghi)perylene). PAH was extracted from soil and plant using soxhlet extraction method. The health risk review was done using risk assessment model. The unpolluted vegetables showed a higher growth performance when compared to the exposed vegetables pertaining to their bio-tolerance. However, unpolluted vegetable was significantly different (P<0.05) from polluted vegetable. The result showed that Fluoranthene (Flu), benzo(a)Pyrene (B(a)P), Acenaphthene (Ace), Anthracene (Ant), Naphthalene (Nap) and Benzo(b)Fluoranthene obtained from spent engine oil polluted soil (SEOPS) were the most abundant in the soil. However, concentration of commercially purchased benzo(a)pyrene was observed to be higher in plants than (Benzo(k)fluoranthene and Benzo(ghi)perylene) utilized. Bioaccumulation factor total (BAFT) of commercially purchased B(a)P, B(k)F and B(ghi)P showed higher accumulation value (1.8, 1.5), compared to that of spent engine oil in edible vegetables. Analysis of the calculated assessing value (AV), Benzo(a)pyrene toxic equivalent quotient (BaPteq), food daily intake, and margin of exposure (MOE) showed potential risk concern when consumed, except for progressive lifetime cancer risk (PLCR). The PLCR poses relatively low health concern; nevertheless, prolonged exposure to these pollutants can affect humans as it possesses a high potential to bio-accumulate in edible vegetables.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Abdel-Shafy, H. I., & Mansour, M. S. M. (2016). A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Source, environmental impact, effect on human health and remediation. Mona S.M. Mansour, 25(1), 107–123. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpe.2015.03.011
Adekunle, A. S., Oyekunle, J. A. O., Ola, I. J., Obisesan, O. R., & Maxakato, N. W. (2018). Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in some personal care products in Nigeria. Toxicology Reports, 5, 994–1001. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2018.10.003
Alani, R., Olayinka, K., & Alo, B. (2013). Studies on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Lagos Lagoon 1 : occurrence and levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface waters of the lagoon. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Science, 4(6), 811–818.
Alghamdi, A. G., & EL-Saeid, M. H. (2021). Diffusive mass flux of different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and estimation of lifetime average daily dose in a soil micro-block system. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Volume, 18, 379–392. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpe.2015.03.011
Alves, W. S., Manoel, E. A., Santos, N. S., Nunes, R. O., Domiciano, G. C., & Soares, M. R. (2017). Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Medicago sativa L. by fluorescence microscopy. Micron, 95, 23–30. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micron.2017.01.004
Cachada, A., Silva, E. F. da, Duarte, A. C., & Pereira, R. (2016). Risk assessment of urban soils contamination: The particular case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Science of The Total Environment, 551–552, 271–284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.02.012
Chen, Z.-X., Ni, H.-G., Jing, X., Chang, W.-J., Sun, J.-L., & Zeng, H. (2015). Plant uptake, translocation, and return of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via fine root branch orders in a subtropical forest ecosystem. Chemosphere, 131, 192–200. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.03.045
Čvančarová, M., Křesinová, Z., & Cajthaml, T. (2015). Influence of the bioaccessible fraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the ecotoxicity of historically contaminated soils. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 254–255(15), 116–124. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.03.060
Dupuy, J., Leglize, P., Vincent, Q., Zelko, I., Mustin, C., Ouvrard, S., & Sterckeman, T. (2016). Effect and localization of phenanthrene in maize roots. Chemosphere, 149, 130–136. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.01.102
EFSA. (2005). Opinion of the Scientific Committee on a request from EFSA related to A Harmonised Approach for Risk Assessment of Substances Which are both Genotoxic and Carcinogenic. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2005.282
Fang, Y., Nie, Z., Liu, F., Die, Q., He, J., & Huang, Q. (2014). Concentration and health risk evaluation of heavy metals in market-sold vegetables and fishes based on questionnaires in Beijing, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21(19), 11401–11408. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3127-x
Ghosh, M., & Singh, S. P. (2005). A comparative study of cadmium phytoextraction by accumulator and weed species. Environmental Pollution, 133, 365–371. https://doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2004.05.015
Hahladakis, J., Smaragdaki, E., Vasilaki, G., & Gidarakos, E. (2013). Use of Sediment Quality Guidelines and pollution indicators for the assessment of heavy metal and PAH contamination in Greek surficial sea and lake sediments. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185, 2843–2853. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-012-2754-2
Halek, F., Nabi, G., & Kavousi, A. (2008). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons study and toxic equivalency factor (TEFs) in Tehran, Iran. Environ Monit Asses, 143, 303–311. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-007-9983-9
Igbiri, S., Udowelle, N. A., Ekhator, O. C., Asomugha, R. N., Igweze, Z. N., & Orisakwe, O. E. (2017). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Edible Mushrooms from Niger Delta, Nigeria: Carcinogenic and Non-Carcinogenic Health Risk Assessment. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev., 18(2), 437–447. https://doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2017.18.2.437
Ikue, G. S., Monanu, M. O., & Onuah, C. L. (2016). Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Tissues (Gills and Muscles) of (Catfish) Chrysichthys nigrodidatatus from Crude Oil Polluted Water of Ogoniland, River State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, 6(3), 1–6.
Kim, K.-H., Jahan, S. A., Kabir, E., & Brown, R. J. C. (2013). A review of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their human health effects. Environment International, 60, 71–80. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2013.07.019
Li, Q., & Ceng, B. (2014). Organic Pollutant Clustered in the Plant Cuticular Membranes: Visualizing the Distribution of Phenanthrene in Leaf Cuticle Using Two-Photon Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy. Environ. Sci. Technol., 48(9), 4774–4781. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1021/es404976c
Martorell, I., Perelló, G., Martí-Cid, R., Castell, V., Llobet, J. M., & Domingo, J. L. (2010). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in foods and estimated PAH intake by the population of Catalonia, Spain: Temporal trend. Environment International, 36(5), 424–432. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2010.03.003
Moslen, M., Miebaka, C. A., & Boisa, N. (2019). Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) in a bivalve (Arca senilis- blood cockles) and health risk assessment. Toxicology Reports, 6, Toxicol. Reports. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2019.09.006
Nwogu, U. E., Udebuani, A. C., & Nicholas, U. T. (2022). Heavy metal contamination index, metal index and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon content of Ochani River in Ogoni, Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, 31(9), 36–47. https://doi.org/ttps://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr%2F2022%2Fv31i9780
Odjegba, V. J., & Atebe, J. . (2007). The effect of used engine oil on carbohydrate, mineral content and nitrate reductase activity of leafy vegetable (Amaranthus hybridus L.). J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage, 11(2), 191–196.
Okereke, C. J., Essien, E. B., & Wegwu, M. O. (2016). Distribution and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetables and agricultural soils from two communities in Rivers State, Nigeria. J. Res. Env. Sc Toxicol., 5, 18–25.
Osuagwu, A. N., Ndubuisi, P., & Okoro, C. K. (2017). Effect of spent engine oil contaminated soil on Arachis hypogea (L.), Zea mays (L.) and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. International Journal of Advance Agriculture Research, 5, 76–81.
Pandey, R., Masood, F., Singh, H. P., & Batish, D. R. (2017). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as environmental pollutants: a review. International Journal of Advanced Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 6, 1361–1369.
Pretorius, T. R., Charest, C., Kimpe, L. E., & Blais, J. M. (2018). The accumulation of metals, PAHs and alkyl PAHs in the roots of Echinacea purpurea. PLoS ONE, 13(12), e0208325. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0208325
Qu, C., Qi, S., Yang, D., Huang, H., Zhang, J., Chen, W., Yohannes, H. K., Sandy, E. H., Yang, J., & Xing, X. (2015). Risk assessment and influence factors of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in agricultural soils of the hill region: A case study from Ningde, southeast China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 149, 43–51. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2014.11.002
Sakshi, Singh, S. K., & Haritash, A. K. (2019). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: soil pollution and remediation. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 16, 6489–6512. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-019-02414-3
Salehi-Lisar, S. Y., & Deljoo, S. (2015). The physiological effect of fluorene on Triticum aestivum, Medicago sativa, and Helianthus annus. Cogent Food and Agriculture, 1(1), 1020189. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2015.1020189
Tongo, I., Ogbeide, O., & Ezemonye, L. (2017). Human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked fish species from markets in Southern Nigeria. Toxicology Reports, 4, 55–61. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2016.12.006
Wu, Z., Zhao, X., Sun, X., Tan, Q., Tang, Y., Nie, Z., Qu, C., Chen, Z., & Hu, C. (2015). Antioxidant enzyme systems and the ascorbate–glutathione cycle as contributing factors to cadmium accumulation and tolerance in two oilseed rape cultivars (Brassica napus L.) under moderate cadmium stress.
Chemosphere, 138, 526–536. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.06.080
Wyszkowski, M., Wyszkowska, J., & Ziółkowska, A. (2004). Effect of soil contamination with diesel oil on yellow lupine yield and macroelements content. Plant Soil Environment, 50(5), 218–226.
Xia, Z., Duan, X., Qiu, W., Liu, D., Wang, B., Tao, S., Jiang, Q., Lu, B., Song, Y., & Hu, X. (2010). Science of the Total Environment Health risk assessment on dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( PAHs ) in Taiyuan , China. Science of the Total Environment, The, 408(22), 5331–5337. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.08.008
Zhang, S., Yao, H., Lu, Y., Yu, X., Wang, J., Sun, S., Liu, M., Li, D., Li, Y.-F., & Zhang, D. (2017). Uptake and translocation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals by maize from soil irrigated with wastewater. Scientific Reports, 7, 12165. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-12437-w