Correlation of lithofacies and depositional environment using Markov chain analysis in Sambipitu formation at Ngalang river, Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Main Article Content

Al Hussein Flowers Rizqi Hendri Tri Purnomo


The research area is located at Ngalang river, Gedangsari sub-district, Gunungkidul Regency, Special Region of Yogyakarta. The research area is part of southern mountain area which is composed of lithology of Sambipitu calcareous sandstone. The depositional process phase in the Sambipitu formation has a unique pattern and is relevant to the previous lithology. As a result, the stratigraphic position and lithological repetition pattern were reviewed using the statistical method (Markov chain). The aim of this research is to use geostatistics to examine the sedimentation trend in order to predict the existence of rock facies in the Sambipitu Formation. In each unit of lithology cycle, geostatistics is expected to assist, to predict and to interpret the significance of subsequent lithology appearances. The research method used was measured stratigraphy, determination of rock age and depositional environment based on fossil identification. In addition, this research used probability matrix in Markov chain analysis. The results of the Markov chain analysis showed that lithology of rock in the upper Sambipitu formation had a non-random transition pattern. The results of statistical calculation showed that the calculation value was greater than the Chi-square table value (333.9>34.38) that the H0 component was rejected. Lithofacies and depositional environment are correlated to several geological aspects such as distribution of rock facies, source of rock, paleobtahymetri, trace fossils and sedimentation process.

Article Details



Apriani, A. (2016). Metode Markov Chains Untuk Analisa Perulangan Fasies Di Sub Basin Kiliran Jao Sumatra Barat. Angkasa: Jurnal Ilmiah Bidang Teknologi, VIII(1), 1–16.

Aprilita, L., Pandita, H., & Nuraini, S. (2020). Analisis Fasies pada kontak antar formasi Sambipitu dan formasi Oyo di lintasan kali Ngalang, Gunung Kidul. Geoda2, 1(2), 43–52.

Blow, W. H. (1969). Late Middle Eocene to Recent planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy. In E. Brill (Ed.), Proceedings of the First International Conference Planktonic Microfossils 1967 (Vol. 1, pp. 199-242).

Bogie, I. (1998). The application of a volcanic facies model to an andesitic stratovolcano hosted geothermal system at Wayang Windu, Java, Indonesia. Proceedings of 20th NZ Geothermal Workshop.

Bothe, A. C. D. (1929). The Geology of the Hills Near Djiwo and Southern Range. 4th PacificScience Congress.

Bouma, A. H. (1962). Sedimentology of Some Flysch Deposits: A Graphic Approach to Facies Interpretation. Elsevier.

Collinson, J. D., & Thompson, D. B. (1982). Sedimentary Structures. Allen at Unwin Publishers Ltd.

Dicky Candrawan Putra, & Pandita, H. (2017). Identification of Kali Ngalang fault in Karanganyar village, Ngalang, Gedang Sari Sub district, Gunung Kidul Regency, Special Regency of Yogyakarta. Prosiding Nasional Rekayasa Teknologi Industri Dan Informasi XIV Tahun 2019 (ReTII), 1–11.

Donovan, S. K. (2017). Trace fossils and tropical karst. Geological Magazine, 154(1), 166–168.

Haris, F. (2012). Geoologi dan studi Formasi Nglanggeran Daerah Patuk dan sekitarnya, Kecamatan Patuk, Kabupaten Gunung Kidul, Provinsi D.I. Yogyakarta. UPN Veteran.

He, J., La Croix, A. D., Wang, J., Ding, W., & Underschultz, J. R. (2019). Using neural networks and the Markov Chain approach for facies analysis and prediction from well logs in the Precipice Sandstone and Evergreen Formation, Surat Basin, Australia. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 101, 410–427.

Hillier, F. S., & Lieberman, G. J. (1995). Introduction to Operations Research, Sixth Edition. McGraw-Hill.

Jun, H., Cho, Y., & Noh, J. (2019). Trans-dimensional Markov chain Monte Carlo inversion of sound speed and temperature: Application to Yellow Sea multichannel seismic data. Journal of Marine Systems, 197, 103180.

Kuenen, P. H., & Migliorini, C. I. (1950). Turbidity Currents as a Cause of Graded Bedding. The Journal of Geology, 58(2), 91–127.

Lumsden, D. N. (1971). Markov chain analysis of carbonate rocks: applications, limitations, and implications as exemplified by the Pennsylvanian system in southern Nevada. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 82(2), 447–462.[447:MCAOCR]2.0.CO;2

Michael, H. A., Li, H., Boucher, A., Sun, T., Caers, J., & Gorelick, S. M. (2010). Combining geologic‐process models and geostatistics for conditional simulation of 3‐D subsurface heterogeneity. Water Resources Research, 46(5), W0552.

Novian, M. I., & Surjono, S. S. (2011). Stratigrafi dan sedimentasi zona transisi formasi Sambipitu: Formasi Oyo jalur Kali Widoro, Ngalang dan Kedungdowo, Kecamatan Nglipar, Kabupaten Gunung Kidul, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Pandita, H. (2008). Depositional environment of Sambipitu Formation Based on Trace Fossil in Nglipar Area. JTM, Institut Teknologi Bandung, XV(2), 85–94.

Pettijohn, F. J. (1957). Sedimentary Rocks. Herper.

Phleger, F. B. (1951). Ecology of Foraminifera, Northwest Gulf of Mexico. The Geological Society of America.

Pramunita, S. W., & Pandita, H. (2020). Analisis kepadatan fosil jejak sebagai parameter tingkat kandungan oksigen dan perubabahan lingkungan pengendapan di Kali Ngalang, Gedangsari, Gunung Kidul, DIY. Geoda, 1(2), 1–18.

Purbantoro, R., Rizqi, A. H. F., & Nuraini, S. (2020). Konfigurasi stratigrafi batas formasi Sambipitu dan oyo di Jalan Ngalang –Gading, Kecamatan Gedangsari–Playen, Gunung Kidul. Geoda, 1(2), 81–94.

Rizqi, A. H. F., & Purnomo, H. T. (2019). Analisis Siklus Perulangan Litologi pada Formasi Sambipitu. Prosiding Nasional Rekayasa Teknologi Industri Dan Informasi XIV Tahun 2019 (ReTII), November, 359–375.

Seilacher, A. (2007). Trace Fossil Analysis. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Selley, R. C. (1985). Ancient Sedimentary Environments, 3rd edition. Cornell University Press.

Suprapto, N., Zamroni, A., & Yudianto, E. A. (2017). One Decade of the “LUSI” Mud Volcano: Physical, Chemical, and Geological Dimensions. Chemistry, 26(4), 615–629.

Surono, Toha, B., Sudarno, I., & Wiryosujono, S. (1992). Stratigraphy of Southern Mountain, Central Java. P3G-Ditjen GSM Dept. Pertamben.

Tipsword, H. L., Setzer, F. M., & Smith Jr, F. L. (1966). Interpretation of Depositional Environment in Gulf Coast Petroleum Exploration from Paleoecology and Related Stratigraphy. Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions, 16, 119–130.

van Bemmelen, R. W. (1949). General Geology of Indonesia and adjacent archipelagoes. In The geology of Indonesia. The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff.

Walker, R. G., & James, N. P. (1992). Facies Models: Response to sea Level Change. Geological Association of Canada.

Walrand, J., & Varaiya, P. P. (2000). High-performance Communication Networks (Second Edi). Morgan Kauffman Publishers.

Zamroni, A., Putra, B. P., & Prasetya, H. N. E. (2020). Anthropogenic influences on morphological changes in the Progo River, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia. Sustinere: Journal of Environment and Sustainability, 4(3), 205–223.